All museum aquisitions since 1716 were divided at the begining of 20th century by academician V.I.Vernadskiy to 5 main collections:
consist of more than 90000 items representing about 2400 mineral species (from
4000 species known in nature). Mineral specimens in this collection demonstrating
diversity of mineral species by it constitution, morphology, physical properties,
associations with other minerals.
More then 4800 crystals of minerals representing all crystal systems and most of space groups. Mineral specimens in this collection demonstrating different forms and their combinations, twinning laws, perfection and defection of natural and man made crystals.
More than 31000 specimens representing genetic features, mineral association and ore types for more then 300 former Soviet Union deposits and couple dozen well known localities in other countries.
About 2200 mineral specimens. representing different kinds pseudomorphs and also different features of mineral growing and transformations in various conditions.
Among 8000 items of this collection are gemstone rough, faceted gemstones, article
made of stones. Rather big part of this section is Russian stone art of 18-20
centuries including about 30 items designed by famous Russian juvelir Karl Faberge.